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Endoscopic Ultrasound: How to Prepare

An Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) is a procedure for assessing and producing images of the digestive system with an endoscope. It is also used as a modality to treat certain gastrointestinal disorders through fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Follow along for an overview of EUS. 

When an Endoscopic Ultrasound is used

An EUS can help doctors determine the source of chest pain, abdominal discomfort, and other symptoms. It can also help them evaluate the extent of disease spread in your digestive tract, and evaluate findings from other diagnostics like MRIs or CT scans. It can help evaluate conditions including Barrett’s Esophagus, Lymphoma, and various cancers. 

There are many different therapeutic procedures that can be performed during an EUS. These include celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN), pseudocyst drainage, biliary drainage (EUS-BD) and liver biopsy. Each of these treatments has a unique set of steps involved. Below, we will take a look at some general steps and approaches involved with the various diagnostics and treatments performed through an Endoscopic Ultrasound. 

Preparing for an EUS

The way you need to prepare for an EUS depends on the specifics of the procedure and any therapeutic treatments in your case. In general, you often need to fast starting the midnight before the procedure. This helps empty your stomach. You may also need to discuss any medications you are taking with your doctor before the procedure. It is especially important to stop taking any blood-thinning medications leading up to the procedure. These medications can increase the risk of severe bleeding during the Endoscopic Ultrasound. If the EUS is being performed in the rectal area, you may need to undergo a cleansing routine to prepare your bowels. This usually consists of taking a liquid laxative and sticking to a liquid diet for a day before the procedure. 

During the procedure

On the day of your Endoscopic Ultrasound procedure, you will first go to a pre-op area where your medical information will be taken and you will be given an IV. You will also discuss sedation used during the procedure with an anaesthesiologist. 

Depending on the location in your GI tract that doctors will examine or treat, they will advance an endoscope through your mouth or a colonoscope through your anus. You will be on your left side and may be sedated as this happens. Your doctor will advance the scope to the site or sites of interest and then perform any diagnostics or treatments. This can include tissue biopsies, pain-relieving injections, pseudocyst drainage, and bile duct drainage, depending on your situation. Your doctor will be able to see your GI tract through a camera at the end of the scope, and will pass any necessary instruments through the scope to perform the procedure. Most EUS examinations take under an hour, but the exact time will vary depending on what diagnostics or treatments your doctor is administering. 

After an Endoscopic Ultrasound

After your procedure, you will go to a post-op area where you will recover from any sedation and be monitored for side effects of the procedure. Once you are recovered, your doctor will share results with you. Some biopsy results may take longer to return. Given sedation side effects, you should not operate machinery, drive, or make important decisions for 24 hours following the procedure. 

Endoscopic Ultrasounds have a relatively low risk for complications. If you underwent Celiac Plexus Neurolysis to provide pain relief for tumors, you may experience abdominal pain for a few hours and diarrhea for a few days. More rarely, bleeding, infection, and paralysis can occur. If you underwent Pseudocyst Drainage, there is a small risk of bleeding, infection, and pancreatitis. Additionally, in under one percent of cases, perforations occur, requiring surgery to repair. If you underwent Biliary Drainage, there is a 10-20% chance of mild complications associated with bile drainage. These include bleeding, infection, and bile leakage in the abdominal cavity. If you underwent a Liver Biopsy, complications are very rare, and include a small risk of bleeding and infection. In general, if you were sedated during your procedure, there are a few uncommon complications including aspiration, adverse reactions to sedative medication, and complications from lung and heart diseases. 

Our experienced team at GHP has years of experience performing Endoscopic Ultrasounds. We can help establish the best plan of care for your situation. Contact any of our office locations to learn about the options we offer and schedule an appointment today.

Endoscopic Mucosal Resection (EMR): An Overview

Endoscopic Mucosal Resection, or EMR, is a therapeutic technique that helps remove precancerous and early stage cancer lesions during an upper endoscopy or colonoscopy. This technique is a less-invasive alternative to surgery. Here’s what you need to know if you are preparing for an EMR.

When is an Endoscopic Mucosal Resection Used?

EMRs are used to remove abnormal tissues in the digestive tract. The procedure can help treat a variety of conditions including Barrett’s Esophagus, colorectal cancer, and colon polyps. This is a less invasive option than surgery for removing abnormal tissues in the digestive tract. While EMRs are often used to treat disease, your doctor may also collect tissue samples during the procedure. They can examine tissue they collect to determine a diagnosis and the scope of disease spread. 

Preparing for an EMR

There are several important steps you need to follow prior to an Endoscopic Mucosal Resection. Your physician will discuss each of these with you leading up to the procedure. First, you may need to stop taking certain medications. These include blood-thinning medications like aspirin, Plavix (clopidogrel), Xarelto (rivaroxaban), Lovenox (enoxaparin), Pradaxa (dabigatran), Coumadin (warfarin), and Eliquis (apixaban). Blood-thinners increase your risk of excessive bleeding during the procedure. Also, if you use insulin, you may need to adjust your dosage and timing before the procedure. Make sure you discuss all medications you use with your doctor. 

Additionally, you will need to follow a clear liquid diet the day before the procedure, and stay hydrated. You will also need to fast beginning the midnight before your procedure. For EMRs performed through a colonoscopy, you will also need to undergo a cleansing routine. This involves taking a liquid laxative the day before your EMR to prepare your bowels. 

During the procedure

EMRs are performed through either an upper endoscopy or a colonoscopy, depending on the location of the diseased tissue. When you arrive for your procedure, you will go to a pre-op area where nurses will take your medical information and place an IV. You will also speak with an anaesthesiologist about the sedation they will use for the procedure. 

You then will go to the procedure room and be connected to monitors that will measure your vitals during the EMR. You’ll be sedated at this point. If the procedure is done through an upper endoscopy, you will be placed on your left side and given a bite block so the endoscope can pass through your mouth safely. If it is done through a colonoscopy, you will also be placed on your left side so the colonoscope can pass through your anus and advanced into the colon. 

Your doctor will be identifying and removing lesions during the EMR. There are several ways to remove lesions. Your doctor may inject a liquid into the submucosal layer under the lesion, which acts as a pillow that lifts the lesion for easy removal. They may also use a suction or a rubber band to help lift the lesion. After the lesion is lifted, it will be captured with a snare and the removal site will be cauterized. The procedure takes around 20 to 60 minutes.  

After the Endoscopic Mucosal Resection

Following your EMR, you will move to a post-op area to recover from sedation and monitor for any complications. Once you have recovered, your doctor will talk to you about the findings and give you post-op recovery instructions. You should not drive or make important decisions for 24 hours following the EMR due to sedative effects. You should follow a clear liquid diet immediately following the procedure, and can later transition to bland foods and a more regular diet. 

Complications from an EMR are uncommon. This includes bleeding, which occurs in 5-10% of cases. Your doctor can usually stop bleeding during the procedure if they recognize it. However, bleeding can become severe if it is delayed and may require follow-up care. In other rare cases (1-2% of the time), perforation of the intestine can occur. This is often managed through antibiotics, bowel rest, and hospitalization. It may require surgery as well. Additionally, some patients have reactions to sedative medication in uncommon cases. Always contact your doctor if you have any severe symptoms like abdominal pain, a fever, or excessive rectal bleeding after the procedure, as they may indicate a severe complication. 

Our experienced team at GHP has years of experience performing EMRs. We can help establish the best plan of care for your situation. Contact any of our office locations to learn about the options we offer and schedule an appointment today.

Radiofrequency Ablation: What You Should Expect

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a procedure that utilizes radio waves to destroy diseased tissue. Here’s what you need to know if you are preparing for the procedure. 

When it’s used

Radiofrequency ablation can be used during an upper endoscopy to treat Barrett’s esophagus. People with Barrett’s esophagus have an increased risk of esophageal cancer, and RFA can eliminate this risk by destroying pre-cancerous tissue in the esophagus. Patients with both high and low grade dysplasia should almost always pursue radiofrequency ablation. It has an 80-90% success rate in removing Barrett’s esophagus long-term. There is a chance that Barrett’s can develop again after a successful procedure. However, repeat treatments are effective and often able to eliminate abnormal tissues entirely. 

Preparing for Radiofrequency Ablation

To prepare for RFA, your physician will discuss preoperative steps with you. First, you will need to talk to them about medications you are taking that could be a risk factor. For example, blood-thinning medications can increase the risk of excessive bleeding during the procedure. Additionally, if you use insulin, you may need to adjust dosage or timing leading up to the RFA. Your doctor will also ask you about any allergies to medications. You will be instructed to stop eating at midnight the day before the procedure. 

During the procedure

Before the procedure, you will be on an IV and will give your medical information in a pre-op area. An anaesthesiologist will then discuss sedation for the procedure. Then, you will go to the procedure room. Doctors will connect you to monitors that measure your heart rate, blood pressure, and blood oxygen levels.

Your doctor will perform radiofrequency ablation during an upper endoscopy. You will be on your left side. A bite block will be in your mouth to prevent damage to your teeth or the endoscope. You will be under sedation for the duration of the procedure. 

Your doctor will advance the endoscope into your esophagus and examine the Barrett’s esophagus. If they see any visible abnormalities, they may perform an endoscopic mucosal resection. This involves either injecting or banding any identified lesions and then using a snare device to capture, cut, and remove them. If this is not necessary, your doctor will perform RFA. They will inflate a balloon-catheter to make contact with the targeted area and apply heat energy for a second or so. 

After the Radiofrequency Ablation

Afterwards, you will wait in a post-op area where you can recover from the sedation while being monitored for any complications. Once you have recovered, your doctor will discuss their findings with you. Some results may take days or weeks to return. They will also give you information on any follow-up appointments. 

For the first 24 hours after the procedure, you should not drive or make important decisions due to sedative effects. Your doctor will also recommend a clear liquid diet for a few days following the treatment. 

Patients commonly feel some chest discomfort and have difficulty swallowing for a few days after the procedure. Your doctor will be prescribe medications to help with any pain or nausea. You will also need to take a proton pump inhibitor twice a day for 30 days. 

Complications

There are a few complications that can occur from the procedure. In around 6% of cases a stricture or narrowing of scar tissue develops in the esophagus. Doctors can treat this with dilation during an upper endoscopy. Another more rare complication is a tear in the esophagus, which occurs less than .02% of the time. 

Our experienced team at GHP has years of experience performing radiofrequency ablation. We can help establish the best plan of care for your situation. Contact any of our office locations to learn about the options we offer and schedule an appointment today.

Dr. Matthew McCollough on Teachable Moments

Dr. Matthew McCollough was recently featured in an MD-Update Magazine article highlighting his passion for communicating with patients:

 

 Like all physicians, Matthew McCollough, MD, completed years of education and training before reaching his current position as gastroenterologist at Gastroenterology Health Partners’ (GHP) New Albany, Indiana location. As much as he enjoyed learning, he also enjoys imparting that knowledge to his patients, enabling them to better understand and manage their own health. But, contrary to what you might think, imparting that knowledge begins not with a lecture, but by listening.

 “When it comes to talking to patients, I make sure they know I’m listening to them,” McCollough says. “I need to make a personal connection with them that I care about their disease, I care about their complaints. I always ask the question, ‘If I could fix one or two things magically today, what would you like me to do? I’m having a one-on-one conversation with you, you can trust me, I’m going to listen to your complaints, and even if I can’t fix them, I’ll be honest with you about it and try to get you to the right place.’ Having a connection and being able to educate them on their disease and also letting them know that I care, because I do.”

 Those instincts to educate and care for others led to McCollough developing an interest in the medical profession at an early age. He grew up in western Kentucky and attended Georgetown College, in central Kentucky, where he met his wife Robin, who is a physical therapist. He attended the University of Louisville School of Medicine, graduating in 2003. He completed his internal medicine residency there and served as chief medical resident for a year, enjoying the opportunity to teach students. He stayed in Louisville to complete his gastroenterology fellowship in 2010.

 “I love knowledge and teaching people about things,” McCollough says. “Helping people’s quality of life is the main reason I became a doctor. Gastroenterology has allowed me to have a breadth of knowledge that was broad and affords me the ability to continue to learn and help people in a unique way.”

Read the full article here: